Frame Titles and Layout
This is a technique for testing:
WCAG 2.0: Guideline 1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure. Understanding Guideline 18.104.22.168 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A) How to Meet 1.3.1 | Understanding 1.3.1
1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence: When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. (Level A) How to Meet 1.3.2 | Understanding 1.3.2
2.4.3 Focus Order: If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. (Level A) How to Meet 2.4.3 | Understanding 2.4.3
3.2.2 On Input: Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. (Level A) How to Meet 3.2.2 | Understanding 3.2.2
Frames can be used as a key design element to offer different sections (web pages) as a collection within one web page. There are some frame pros and cons to think about but frames can be made accessible with accurate titles and in the case of iframes an additional link to the content. There can be problems with orientation within frames as screen reader users may not receive clear guidance or know where they are within a web page if there are frames within frames or a lack of clear guidance as to where the focus within the page has settled. Once again W3C offer extensive information about frames. 456 Berea St has an article on Who framed the web: Frames and usability that highlights some of the issues that make life harder when using frames; from printing to problems for search engines as well as accessibility. The suggestion is to make use of Cascading Style Sheets.
Frame titles can be checked by using the Firefox Accessibility Extension.
Frame borders can be seen by looking at the page source (code) e.g <FRAMESET rows="50%, 50%"> ...the rest of the definition...</FRAMESET> or by using the Web Developer toolbar an add-on for Firefox or the Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT) for Internet Explorer or the AIS Web Accessibility Toolbar.
- Webaim: Creating Accessible Frames.
- CoolWebDeveloper: Making iframes content Web accessible for screen readers.
- University of Wisconsin: Making Accessible Frames with a diagram that illustrates a frameset web page and the correct HTML attributes.
- Durham University: Advice about frames and using Dreamweaver.